How Solar Panels Work

Solar Power in Iran

Solar Panel cells convert sunlight into electricity by an energy conversion process. In most Solar Panel cells, photons (light energy) hit the cells, exciting electrons in the atoms of a semi-conducting material. Silicon is the most commonly used semi-conductor. The energised electrons result in the generation of an electrical voltage. In other words, electrons flow, producing direct current (DC) electricity.

Where Solar Panels are used
Solar Panel systems can be part of an Off Grid connection. These are not connected to the electrical distribution network.

Solar panels are also becoming popular in urban environments, where they may be Grid Connected.

Key components of PV systems
PV systems are typically made of these key elements:

  • Solar Panel modules, cables, and mounting or fixing hardware
  • An inverter and controller
  • Batteries, back-up generators, and other components in off-grid situations
  • Special electricity meters, in the case of grid-connected systems

How much electricity do Solar Panels produce?
The amount of electricity a Solar Panel system generates depends on the intensity of the sunlight to which it’s exposed. Solar Panels still produce electricity on cloudy days, but less than with direct sunlight.

Obviously Solar Panels generate no electricity at night, and less in the morning and evening than in the middle of the day. How much electricity you will get from your Solar panels per day can be worked out when designing your system.

In a whole day, a well-located PV panel will typically generate between 2.5 and 5 times its rated power output. Therefore, a 1kWp (kilowatt peak) PV panel could produce between 2.5kWh (kilowatt hours) and 5kWh per day, or between 880kWh and 1750kWh per year.

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Iran’s Sixth Development Plan also provided for the installation of 500 MW of new solar capacity by 2018. Iran’s climate is diverse, and many of its regions are arid. Because the south, northwest and southeast regions receive around 300 days of sun per year, they are uniquely suited for solar energy. The Iranian government has prioritized the central region in particular due to its climate and proximity to the national power grid.

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